Bosnia and Herzegovina

Capital: Sarajevo
Official language: Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian
Total Area: 51,197 km2
Population: 3,871,643
Currency: BAM
Per Capita Net Income:$8,589
Visa (from Turkey): Bosnia and Herzegovina does not require visa from Turkish citizens.


Bosnia and Herzegovina, sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, abbreviated BiH, and in short often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula. Sarajevo is the capital and largest city. Bordered by Croatia to the north, west, and south; Serbia to the east; Montenegro to the southeast; and the Adriatic Sea to the south, with a coastline about 20 kilometres long surrounding the city of Neum. In the central and eastern interior of the country the geography is mountainous, in the northwest it is moderately hilly, and the northeast is predominantly flatland. The inland is a geographically larger region and has a moderate continental climate, bookended by hot summers and cold and snowy winters. The southern tip of the country has a Mediterranean climate and plain topography.


Bosnia and Herzegovina is home to three ethnic “constituent peoples”: Bosniaks, Serbs and Croats. According to the 1991 census, Bosnia and Herzegovina had a population of 4,377,000, while the 1996 UNHCR unofficial census showed a decrease to 3,920,000. Large population migrations during the Yugoslav wars in the 1990s have caused demographic shifts in the country. Between 1991 and 2013, political disagreements made it impossible to organize a census. A census has been planned for 2012; but that date has been delayed until 2013; this was delayed until October 2013. The 2013 census found a total population of 3,791,622 people in 1.16 million households; this is 585,411 fewer people than the 1991 census.


A Roman Catholic church, a mosque, and a Serbian Orthodox church in Bosanska Krupa.
Ethnically, according to data from 2000 cited by the Central Intelligence Agency, Bosniaks constitute 48% of the population, Serbs 37.1%, Croats 14.3%, and others form 0.6%. According to unofficial estimates from the Bosnian State Statistics Agency cited by the US Department of State in 2008, 45 percent of the population identify religiously as Muslim, 36 percent as Serb Orthodox, 15 percent as Roman Catholic, 1 percent as Protestant, and 3 percent other (mostly atheists, Jews, and others).

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